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Sunday, January 28, 2007

 

Sultan Mahmud, Hj. Abdul Rahman Limbung dan lain-lain

Artikel Johan Jaafar dalam kolum mingguan beliau di NST menarik minat saya untuk menulis di blog ini. Beliau menulis tentang banjir yang berlaku di Kota Tinggi dan juga cerita sejarah bandar Kota Tinggi itu. Topik makam Sultan Mahmud dan makam Megat Seri Rama, atau lebih dikenali sebagai Panglima Bintan menjadi perbualan dikalangan penduduk Kota Tinggi kerana makam Sultan Mahmud tidak terjejas akibat banjir tetapi makam Panglima Bintan pula tenggelam, kononnya makam Panglima Bintan tenggelam akibat daripada penderhakaan beliau kepada Sultan. Tetapi pada saya ianya akibat daripada faktor geografi setempat, tidak lebih daripada itu.
Saya berminat dengan tulisan Dato' Johan berkenaan pembunuhan Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang, waris terakhir daripada kesultanan Melayu Melaka. Menurut beliau, cerita bagaimana Sultan Mahmud dibunuh adalah akibat daripada dendam Panglima Bintan kepada Sultan Mahmud yang membunuh isteri beliau, Wan Anum. Wan Anum yang ketika itu sedang sarat mengandung, mengidamkan buah nangka. Kebetulan pula buah tersebut hendak diberikan kepada Sultan. Seorang pegawai istana yang bersimpati telah memotong sebahagian daripada buah tersebut dan berikannya kepada Wan Anum. Sultan Mahmud murka apabila mendapat tahu hal tersebut, kerana Sultan tidak sepatutnya memakan bekas makanan rakyat biasa. Apabila diberitahukan oleh Wan Anum kepada Sultan bahawa buah itu untuk anak dalam kandungannya, Sultan tidak percaya dan meminta agar dibelah perutnya sebagai bukti.
Panglima Bintan berasa sangat terkejut apabila mendapat tahu berita tersebut, lalu bertindak membunuh Sultan Mahmud ketika baginda sedang diarak (dijulang) ke masjid pada hari Jumaat. Maka, Sultan Mahmud mangkat ketika dijulang.
Cerita ini mengingatkan saya kepada ayat Dato' Khalid Ibrahim (kini Bendahari Parti Keadilan Rakyat), dalam wawancara beliau dengan majalah Off The Edge (Dec 2006), apabila beliau menyebut;

"Malays, basically, only support the winner..it's very traditional..if the sultan is killed by his brother and the brother becomes the sultan, the scene of the killing is not relevant, they will support the new sultan"

Zaman itu adalah di mana era Sultan berkuasa mutlak. Segala titah Sultan adalah undang-undang. Segala tingkah laku Sultan tidak boleh dipersoal. Itu adalah norma kehidupan dulu yang harus diterima. Sebab itulah pada zaman dulu sesiapa yang menderhaka tidak mendapat tempat dalam masyarakat. Zaman itu istilah revolusi belum wujud. Malah revolusi besar boleh dikatakan tidak pernah wujud di bumi Nusantara ini. Kalau ada pun, ianya tidak begitu memberi impak yang besar. Tidak ada penentangan secara terang-terangan terhadap raja-raja Melayu kerana masyarakat Melayu secara umumnya masih bersifat feudalistik. Masih menyayangi raja-raja Melayu. Di Brunei, pada dekad 1960-an, cubaan Parti Rakyat pimpinan Azahari untuk menggulingkan kerajaan telah gagal. Sultan Brunei telah mendapat bantuan ketenteraan dari negara-negara Komanwel, seperti Britain dan Australia. Parti-parti Melayu berhaluan kiri juga kurang mendapat tempat di hati rakyat. Laungan perjuangan untuk membentuk sebuah gagasan 'Melayu Raya', yang menggabungkan negara Indonesia dan Malaya juga menemui kegagalan.
Sebab itu saya selalu berpendapat bahawa dalam membuat kajian ilmiah tentang zaman Melayu lama, haruslah dilihat dari perspektif zaman itu sendiri. Kita tidak boleh mengkaji sejarah dulu tetapi mengambil kira faktor semasa dalam membuat pertimbangan. Sebab itu pada saya, tindakan Hang Tuah membunuh Jebat walaupun Tuah sendiri dalam dilema adalah sesuatu yang diterima masyarakat dalam konteks Melaka kurun ke-15, kerana berlaku derhaka kepada raja adalah sesuatu yang paling tidak diingini.
Pada saya mengangkat karya agung 'Hikayat Hang Tuah' yang telah diiktiraf oleh UNESCO sebagai salah satu karya sastera agung dunia yakni setaraf dengan karya Ramayana dan Mahabrata, adalah jauh lebih penting. Walaupun begitu saya masih terbuka untuk membaca kajian-kajian terbaru tentang Hikayat Hang Tuah ini, kerana karya ini adalah manuskrip sastera, bukannya sejarah. Atas sebab itu saya boleh menerima idea-idea baru seperti yang ditulis oleh U-Wei Saari dalam teater beliau, 'Wangi Jadi Saksi' baru-baru ini, yang mana dalam pementasan tersebut U-Wei menunjukkan bagaimana Jebat tidak mati ditangan Tuah, tapi di tangan pembesar Sultan berketurunan Jawa, Patih Kerma Wijaya. . [baca posting blog tentang teater Wangi Jadi Saksi untuk ulasan lanjut]
Satu lagi contoh mudah ialah ketika penentangan Haji Abdul Rahman Limbung di Kuala Berang, Terengganu. Kita tahu daripada buku-buku sejarah bahawa Haji Abdul Rahman Limbung menentang British kerana tidak setuju dengan cukai tanah baru yang dikenakan. Penduduk-penduduk kampung telah mengusahakan tanah sawah mereka sejak berkurun-kurun lamanya, tiba-tiba apabila British datang, mereka sewenang-wenangnya mengenakan cukai.
Tetapi bukan isu itu yang ingin saya ceritakan di sini, tetapi tentang isu mentaliti feudal/bangsawan rakyat. Walaupun telah jelas Sultan Terengganu dan pembesar Melayu bersekongkol atau dalam kata lain diperalatkan oleh penjajah British, tetapi penduduk Kuala Berang tidak menunjukkan penentangan yang jelas kepada Sultan. Mereka tetap bersikap defensive, berlembut, berdiplomasi dan masih menaruh harapan terhadap raja mereka seperti dialog ringkas pada watak Lebai Hasan di dalam novel 'Tangisan Bangsaku' oleh Arifin Ngah di bawah. (sebuah novel sejarah Pemenang Anugerah Sastera Darul Iman IV, yang mengisahkan tentang sejarah penentangan Haji Abdul Rahman Limbung);
Kata Mat Solah, "Tidakkah baginda tahu, rakyat di Telemung ini menangis kerana kezaliman penjajah itu?"
"Boleh jadi baginda tidak tahu" Lebai Hasan seperti mencari alasan. Dia yakin Sultan tidak sekejam itu.
"Sudah jelas Sultan membuat sokongan kepada Inggeris di depan beribu-ribu rakyat. Ya, tak berselindung lagi, baginda tak menyebelahi rakyat," kata Tuk Pitas dengan kesal.
"Tapi, kita tak boleh salahkan sultan. Baginda seperti terpaksa. Tak ada sokongan di belakang baginda. Baginda keseorangan. Pembesar terpengaruh dengan pangkat kemuliaan dan harta benda. Mana ada kuasa nak halang Inggeris?" Lebai Hasan masih membuat alasan. [petikan daripada Tangisan Bangsaku (ms. 267/268)]
British pandai menggunakan helah memperalatkan raja Melayu dan berselindung disebalik kata-kata seperti; ini penderhakaan kepada Sultan. Semua tindakan British telah mendapat persetujuan Sultan. Samalah seperti kisah Mat Kilau yang dituduh menderhaka kepada Sultan.
Akhir kalam, "Raja Adil Raja Disembah, Raja Zalim Raja Disanggah".

Sunday, January 21, 2007

 

Buy Sell Trade



I managed to sold off few of my books (and mom's old novels) to the shop above, in ss15. Actually i've brought along about 10kilos of various kinds of old books to get rid off but I was told that they only accept novels. Damnn. So yeah, only 6 books were accepted then, and they pay me RM6. Terry Brookes's 'Elfstone of Shannara' is priced at RM3. I think I could've sell it for a better price at ebay or something, ya?
I wanted to sell my dad's Kodak digicam (EasyShare DX6440. 4mp) too, but they could only offer me about RM180-200. So I said to him that I would think about it first. In the mean time, any takers here? :)

Thursday, January 11, 2007

 

Mat Kilau

"see, who would have thought I too will live to see this country's independence" Mat Kilau to his son in-law, Abu Bakar.
This is an interesting piece of analysis by Bernama on Mat Kilau. I personally think that more academic research should be done about him. The special thing about him is that, he is the only one our many national heroes in late 19th century of the likes of Dato Bahaman and Tok Gajah that lived to witness our nation's independence.
KUANTAN, Jan 10 (Bernama) -- Out of the many Malay warriors of Pahang who stood up against the British in the late 1880s, only one lived to witness with his very own eyes the nation's independence. It's no more than Mat Kilau, the son of a local chieftain Imam Perang Rasu (a.k.a Tok Gajah), one of the Malay warriors who rebelled between 1880s and 1890s when the colonial masters extended their rule to Pahang.
..Moreover, Mat Kilau even had the opportunity to shout the magical word "merdeka" on 31 August 1957, something that his contemporaries like Datuk Bahaman, Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong and Tok Janggut or the earlier ones like Datuk Maharaja Lela and Dol Said did not live to see.
..Mat Kilau's obscurity, much to anyone's surprise, is equally legendary. The feared warrior went into oblivion for more than half a century as he was on the run after the British put a prize on his head and branded him as among those who betrayed the sultan."

Despite all this, it took him 12 years after independence to actually made a public declaration about who he really is;

"He waited almost 12 years after merdeka to come out in the open that he is
Mat Kilau as he feared that the sultan hasn't forgiven him," he said.

But,

"..Unfortunately 10 days after the confirmation, Mat Kilau died on 16 August 1970 at his home in Kampung Batu 5. He is said to have died at the age of 122 based on his estimated birth year of 1847.He was buried with full honours befitting a national hero at his birthplace of Kampung Masjid Pulau Tawar, Jerantut."

wikipedia: Mat Kilau

Saturday, January 06, 2007

 

Malik Imtiaz dan Lelaki Mengaku Nabi

Bernama: Lelaki Mengaku Nabi Dibenar Mohon Cabar Undang-undang Jenayah Syariah

PUTRAJAYA, 3 Jan (Bernama) -- Mahkamah Persekutuan di sini hari ini membenarkan permohonan seorang lelaki, yang menghadapi tuduhan mendakwa dirinya nabi dan menghina ajaran Islam, mencabar beberapa peruntukan dalam Enakmen Jenayah Syariah Selangor.

Abdul Kahar Ahmad, 56, dari Kampung Kemensah, Ampang, diberi tempoh 60 hari mulai hari ini untuk memfailkan petisyennya itu.

Abdul Kahar menamakan kerajaan Selangor sebagai responden.

Peguamnya Malik Imtiaz Sarwar berkata tuduhan terhadap Abdul Kahar kononnya dia menyebarkan ajaran salah, menghina dan melanggar ajaran Islam dan bertindak menyalahi fatwa dan Mufti, bukannya kesalahan mengikut ajaran Islam. (??)

Dalam afidavit mereka, Abdul Kahar dan Mazli berkata hanya Parlimen diberi kuasa menggubal undang-undang jenayah, dan oleh itu, Dewan Undangan Negeri Selangor tidak ada kuasa membuat peruntukan berkenaan kerana masing-masingnya merupakan peruntukan undang-undang jenayah.

Panel lima hakim diketuai Ketua Hakim Negara Tun Ahmad Fairuz Sheikh Abdul Halim juga membenarkan kerajaan Malaysia mencampuri prosiding berkenaan.

Kerajaan Selangor diwakili Penasihat Undang-undang Negeri Datuk Zauyah Be Loth Khan manakala Peguam Kanan Persekutuan Azizah Nawawi mewakili kerajaan.

Pertama sekali, saya bukan seorang yang arif dalam selok belok undang-undang negara, tapi saya tak faham dengan peguam Malik Imtiaz ni apabila beliau bertindak jadi peguambela kepada Abdul Kahar Ahmad, seorang yang mengaku sebagai nabi. (??) Bodoh ke gila. Memanglah beliau kata hendak mencabar undang-undang Jenayah Syariah negara, tapi itu soal lain, yang jelasnya dalam kata simple orang biasa, beliau adalah peguam kepada seorang lelaki yang terang-terang sesat. Apa pula implikasi atau kesan kepada undang-undang syariah kita andai kata beliau menang kes ini? Anyone care to enlighten me more regarding this case?

Sedih juga orang macam ni ada tempat dalam akhbar NST - Beliau turut mempunyai kolum mingguan di NST. Sebagai rekod, beliau adalah salah seorang pendokong kuat IFC - Interfaith Commision.


Friday, January 05, 2007

 

Malcolm X's Letter from Makkah

Interesting reading. Read on. (taken from IslamOnline.net)

The following is Malcolm X’s (al-Hajj, Malik al-Shabazz) letter to his assistants in Harlem during his pilgrimage to Makkah in April of 1964: Never have I witnessed such sincere hospitality and overwhelming spirit of true brotherhood as is practiced by people of all colors and races here in this ancient holy land, the home of Abraham, Muhammad and all the other Prophets of the holy scriptures. For the past week, I have been utterly speechless and spellbound by the graciousness I see displayed all around me by people of all colors.
I have been blessed to visit the holy city of Makkah; I have made my seven circuits around the Ka'aba, led by a young Mutawwaf (guide) named Muhammad; I drank water from the well of the Zamzam. I ran seven times back and forth between the hills of mount al-Safa and al-Marwa. I have prayed in the ancient city of Mina, and I have prayed on mount Arafat.

There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colors, from blue-eyed blondes to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and non-white.

America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered white - but the white attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective of their color.

You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen, and experienced, has forced me to rearrange much of my thought-patterns previously held, and to toss aside some of my previous conclusions. This was not too difficult for me. Despite my firm convictions, I have always been a man who tries to face facts, and to accept the reality of life as new experience and new knowledge unfolds it. I have always kept an open mind, which is necessary to the flexibility that must go hand in hand with every form of intelligent search for truth.

During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept on the same rug - while praying to the same God - with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the words and in the deeds of the white Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan and Ghana.

We were truly all the same (brothers) - because their belief in one God had removed the white from their minds, the white from their behavior, and the white from their attitude.

I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept in reality the Oneness of Man - and cease to measure, and hinder, and harm others in terms of their “differences” in color.

With racism plaguing America like an incurable cancer, the so-called “Christian” white American heart should be more receptive to a proven solution to such a destructive problem. Perhaps it could be in time to save America from imminent disaster - the same destruction brought upon Germany by racism that eventually destroyed the Germans themselves.

Each hour here in the holy land enables me to have greater spiritual insights intowhat is happening in America between black and white. The American Negro never can be blamed for his racial animosities - he is only reacting to four hundred years of the conscious racism of the American whites. But as racism leads America up the suicide path, I do believe, from the experiences that I have had with them, that the whites of the younger generation, in the colleges and universities, will see the handwriting on the walls and many of them will turn to the spiritual path of truth - the only way left to America to ward off the disaster that racism inevitably must lead to.

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.
Sincerely,
al-Hajj, Malik al-Shabazz (Malcolm X)

Tuesday, January 02, 2007

 

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Happy New Year!

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